Near the top of 2009, through the twilight months of a decade that noticed the primary Black man elected to the US presidency, Ashley Weatherspoon was chasing virality on a younger app known as Twitter. As the non-public assistant for the singer Adrienne Bailon, a former member of the pop teams 3LW and the Cheetah Girls, Weatherspoon usually labored on social media technique. For weeks, she and Bailon had been testing out hashtags on each their feeds to see what would join with followers. A delicate success got here with variations on #UKnowUrBoyfriendsCheatingWhen. Later, on a automotive journey round Manhattan, they started enjoying with #UKnowUrFromNewYorkWhen. “We started going ham on it,” Weatherspoon informed me after we spoke over the cellphone in June. As the 2 girls have been laughing and joking, an excellent higher thought popped into Weatherspoon’s head. “Then I said, oh, ‘You know you’re Black when …’”
It was the primary Sunday in September, at precisely 4:25 pm, when Weatherspoon logged on to Twitter and wrote, “#uknowurblackwhen u cancel plans when its raining.” The hashtag unfold like wildfire. Within two hours, 1.2 p.c of all Twitter correspondence revolved round Weatherspoon’s hashtag, as Black customers riffed on all the things from automotive rims to tall tees. It was the viral hit she was after—and affirmation of a wealthy material being threaded collectively throughout the platform. Here, in all its melanated glory, was Black Twitter.
More than a decade later, Black Twitter has turn into essentially the most dynamic subset not solely of Twitter however of the broader social web. Capable of creating, shaping, and remixing fashionable tradition at gentle velocity, it stays the incubator of almost each meme (Crying Jordan, This you?), hashtag (#IfTheyGunnedMeDown, #OscarsSoWhite, #YouOKSis), and social justice trigger (Me Too, Black Lives Matter) price figuring out about. It is each information and evaluation, name and response, decide and jury—a comedy showcase, remedy session, and household cookout multi functional. Black Twitter is a multiverse, concurrently an archive and an all-seeing lens into the long run. As Weatherspoon places it: “Our experience is universal. Our experience is big. Our experience is relevant.”
Though Twitter launched precisely 15 years in the past as we speak, with the objective of altering how—and the way rapidly—individuals talk on-line, the ingenious use of the platform by Black customers could be traced, in a approach, a lot additional again in time. In 1970, when the pc revolution was in its infancy, Amiri Baraka, the founder of the Black Arts Movement, revealed an essay known as “Technology & Ethos.” “How do you communicate with the great masses of Black people?” he requested. “What is our spirit, what will it project? What machines will it produce? What will they achieve?”
For Black customers as we speak, Twitter is Baraka’s prophetic machine: voice and neighborhood, energy and empowerment. To use his phrases, it has turn into an area “to imagine—to think—to construct—to energize!!!” What follows is the primary official chronicling of the way it all got here fantastically collectively. Like all histories, it’s incomplete. But it’s a starting. An define. Think of it as a sort of file of Blackness—the way it strikes and thrives on-line, the way it creates, the way it communes—informed via the eyes of those that lived it.
Part I: Coming Together, 2008–2012
As early net boards like BlackVoices, Melanet, and NetNoir fizzled out within the mid-2000s, on-line areas that catered to Black pursuits have been scarce. BlackPlanet and MySpace did not fill the void, and Facebook didn’t fairly seize the essence of real-time communication. Users have been on the lookout for the subsequent factor.
Kozza Babumba, head of social at Genius: Pre-2007, we had by no means had a dialog about virtually something. As a neighborhood, we didn’t all speak about what it was like after we sang the nationwide anthem. Or what it was like when OJ was driving in that white Bronco. We simply watched it on TV.